Tripura Agriculture Officer Syllabus

 

Tripura Agriculture Officer Syllabus

English

Synonyms & Antonyms

Use of common Phrase & Idioms

Use of appropriate prepositions and articles

Comprehension

Ordering of words in a sentence

Ordering of sentences

Spotting of errors

Use of appropriate and qualifying words etc. 

Parts of speech

Gender, person & number

Tense-past, present, future

Voice change

General knowledge including current affairs

•    Geography of India: - Physical, Social & Economic.

•    Geography of Tripura: — Natural resources with special reference to its soil, forest, water, 

and power.

•     History’ of Tripura:- From 1857 to 1949.

•    Culture of Tripura:- Different Tribes, Languages, Customs, Festivals, Important Historical

sites, etc.

•  Indian  Polity  and  Economy: Country’s Political system and  Constitution  of India, Panchayati Raj,  Community  development,  Economic development during  Plan  periods. Science & Technology

•    Current affairs of national and international importance 

1.  Agriculture in India and Tripura

i. Agriculture in India, its importance in national economy

ii. History oflndian Agriculture.

iii. National agricultural setup in India

iv. Area production and productivity of major crops of Tripura and India.

v. Government Agricultural Policies

vi. Agricultural Education. Research and Extension institutes of National Importance.

vii. Agro - Climatic & Agro-ecological zones of India. 

2.   Natural Resources Management

i. Soil formation, composition, physical properties.

ii. Soil fertility and productivity

iii. Problem soils and their management.

iv. Essential plant nutrients V. Manures & fertilizers vi. Integrated nutrient management (INM)

vii. Scheduling of irrigation, methods of irrigation

viii. Waler use efficiency

ix.  Quality of irrigation water

X. Water stress & management

xi. Conservation of soil and water

xii. Watershed and wasteland development xiii. Cropping systems

xiv. Integrated farming system (IFS) xv. Dryland agriculture

xvi. Sustainable agriculture

xvii. Recycling of agricultural waste

xviii. Biodiversity and its conservation 

xix. Application of Remote Sensing & G1S in Agriculture

3. Fundamentals of Crop Production

i. Factors of crop Production

ii. Agricultural seasons of India and Tripura

iii. Recommended Package of practices of different crops with major emphasis in Tripura.

iv. System of Rice Intensification (SRI).

v. Jhum Cultivation in Tripura

vi. Organic Agriculture

vii.  Weather, climate, atmosphere. Elements of weather, climatic normals for major crops, weather aberration, weather forecasting, global warming and climate change

viii. Tilth & tillage

ix.  Crop establishment

x. Nano-particles and their applications

xi. Precision Agriculture.

xii. Statistical Methods

xiii.  Major Weeds of Tripura & Integrated Weed Management (1WM). Commonly used herbicides in India and Tripura.

xiv. Farm mechanization and its role in agricultural production and rural employment,

xv. Basic knowledge of farm implements.

4. Horticulture

i. Definition and branches, importance in human nutrition and national economy and scope

ii. Plant propagation-methods and propagating structures

iii. Principles and methods of training and pruning.

iv. Juvenility and flower bud differentiation, unfruitfulness, pollination, pollinizers and 

pollinators, fertilization and parthenocarpy.

v. Importance/role of plant bio-regulators in horticulture.

vi. Irrigation and fertilizer application methods in horticultural crops.

vii. Rootstocks - importance and role

viii. Orchard layout and planting systems, high density planting and meadow orchard.

ix.  Production technologies of major fruits - mango, banana, citrus, pineapple guava, litchi, papaya, sapola, grape, apple, pear and minor fruits like ber, jackfruit, strawberry, pomegranate.

x.  Kitchen gardening, origin, production technology of major vegetable crops like Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli,  Capsicum,  Cucumber,  Melons,  Gourds,  Pumpkin,  French  bean.  Peas; Cole crops such  as Cabbage,  Cauliflower,  Knol-khol; Bulb  crops such  as Onion,  Garlic; Root crops such  as Carrot, Radish,  Beetroot; Tuber crops such as Potato, True Potato Seed (TPS) cassava; Leafy vegetables such as Amaranth, Palak, perennial vegetables.

xi.  Production  technology  or important flowers like rose,  gerbera,  carnation,  lilium and  orchids under protected  conditions and  gladiolus,  tuberose,  chrysanthemum under open  conditions. Package of practices for loose flowers like marigold and jasmine under open conditions.

xii.  Production  technology  of important medicinal plants like ashwagandha,  asparagus,  aloe, costus,  Cinnamomum,  periwinkle,  Isabgol and  aromatic plants like mint,  lemongrass,  citronella, palmarosa, ocimum, rose, geranium, vetiver.

xiii. Principles of landscaping, landscape uses of trees, shrubs and climbers.

xiv. Physiological disorders of national Importance in important horticultural crops.

xv.   Pre-harvest  factors  affecting  postharvest  quality,  maturity,  ripening  and  changes  occurring during ripening, respiration and factors affecting respiration rate.

xvi. Storage (ZECC, cold storage, CA, MA, and hypobaric)

xvii. Value addition of horticultural crops, principles and methods of packaging, tetrazine films, 

xviii. Principles and methods of preservation. Drying/ Dehydration of fruits, osmotic drying, fermentation.

xix. Application of nanotechnology in post harvest horticulture.

XX. Canning Concepts and Standards, packaging of products.

xxi.   Protected  cultivation  importance  and  scope,  status  of  protected  cultivation  in  -  India  and World.

xxii.  Types of protected  structure,  cladding  material involved  in  greenhouse/ poly  house, greenhouse design,  environment control,  artificial lights,  Automation,  Soil preparation,  substrate management. Irrigation and ferligalion management.

xxiii.  Greenhouse  cultivation  of  important  horticultural  crops  rose,  carnation,  -  chrysanthemum, gerbera, orchid, anthurium, lilium, tomato, bell pepper, cucumber, strawberry, pot plants, etc.

xxiv. Off-season production of flowers and vegetables.

xxv. Production Technology of Mushrooms.

5.  Crop Improvement

i. Genetics

Pre and  Post Mendelian  concepts of heredity,  Mendelian  principles of heredity.  Architecture and Types of chromosome.  Chromosomal theory  of inheritance- cell cycle and  cell division- mitosis and  meiosis.  Probability  and  Chi- square.  Dominance relationships,  Epistalic interactions with example.

Multiple alleles,  pleiotropism and  pseudoalleles,  Sex  determination  and  sex  linkage,  sex  limited and  sex  influenced  traits,  Blood  group  genetics,  Linkage and  its estimation,  crossing  over mechanisms,  chromosome mapping.  Structural and  numerical variations in  chromosome and  their implications.  Use of haploids,  dihaploids and  doubled  haploids in  Genetics.  Mutation, classification.  Methods of inducing  mutations & CIB technique,  mutagenic agents and  induction of mutation. Qualitative & Quantitative trails. Polygenes and continuous variations, multiple factor hypothesis.  Cytoplasmic inheritance.  Genetic disorders.  Nature,  structure & replication  of genetic material.  Protein  synthesis.  Transcription  and  translational mechanism of genetic material.  Gene concept: Gene structure, function and regulation, Lac and Trp opcrons.

ii. Crop Physiology’

Diffusion  and  osmosis,  Absorption  of water,  transpiration  and  Stomata) Physiology; Mineral nutrition  of Plants: Functions and  deficiency  symptoms of nutrients,  nutrient uptake mechanisms; Photosyntliesis: Light and Dark reactions, C3, C4 and CAM plants; Respiration: Glycolysis, TCA

cycle  and  electron  transport  chain;  Fat  Metabolism:  Fatty  acid  synthesis  and  Breakdown;  Plant growth regulators.

iii. Plant Breeding

Concept, nature and role of plant breeding, major achievements and future prospects; Genetics in relation  to  plant breeding,  modes of reproduction  and  apomixes,  self-incompatibility  and  male sterility- genetic consequences,  cultivar options.  Domestication.  Acclimatization  and  Introduction; Centers of origin, components of Genetic variation; Herilability and genetic advance; Genetic basis and  breeding  methods in  self-pollinated  crops - mass and  pure line selection,  hybridization techniques and  handling  of segregating  population; Multiline concept.  Concepts of population genetics and Hardy-Weinberg Law, Genetic basis and methods of breeding cross pollinated crops, modes of selection; Population Improvement Schemes- Ear to row method. Modified Ear to Row, recurrent selection schemes; Heterosis and inbreeding depression, development of inbred lines and hybrids,  composite and  synthetic varieties; Breeding  methods in  asexually  propagated  crops, clonal selection  and  hybridization; Maintenance of breeding  records and  data collection; Wide hybridization  and  pre-breeding; Polyploidy  in  relation  to  plant breeding,  mutation  breeding­ methods and uses; Breeding for important biotic and abiotic stresses; Biotechnological tools-DNA markers and  marker assisted  selection.  Participatory  plant breeding; Intellectual Property  Rights, Patenting, Plant Breeders and Fanner's Rights.

Centers of origin, distribution of species, wild relatives in different cereals; pulses; oilseeds; fibers; fodders and  cash  crops; vegetable and  horticultural crops; Plant genetic resources,  its utilization and  conservation,  study  of genetics of qualitative and  quantitative characters; Important concepts of breeding  self pollinated,  cross pollinated  and  vegetative propagated  crops; Major breeding objectives and  procedures including  conventional and  modem innovative approaches for development of hybrids and  varieties for yield,  adaptability,  stability,  abiotic and  biotic stress tolerance and  quality  (physical,  chemical,  nutritional); Hybrid  seed  production  technology  in Maize,  Rice,  Sorghum,  Pearl millet and  Pigeon  pea.  etc.  Ideotype concept and  climate resilient crop varieties for future.

iv. Seed and Seed Technology

Introduction,  definition  and  importance.  Deterioration  causes of crop  varieties and  their control; Maintenance of genetic purity during seed production, seed quality; Definition. Characters of good quality  seed,  different classes of seed.  Foundation  and  certified  seed  production  of important cereals,  pulses,  oilseeds,  fodder and  vegetables.  Seed  certification.  Seed  Act.  1966  and  Seed  Act enforcement.  Duty  and  powers of seed  inspector,  offences and  penalties.  Seeds Control Order

1983,  Varietal Identification  through  Grow Out Test and  Electrophoresis,  Molecular and Biochemical test.  Detection  of genetically  modified  crops.  Transgene contamination  in  non-GM crops, GM crops and organic seed production.

Seed  drying,  processing  and  their steps,  seed  testing  for quality  assessment,  seed  treatment,  its importance,  method  of application  and  seed  packing.  Seed  storage; general principles,  stages and factors affecting  seed  longevity  during  storage.  Measures for pest and  disease control during storage.  Seed  marketing: structure and  organization,  sales generation  activities,  promotional media. Factors affecting seed marketing. Role of WTO and OECD in seed marketing.

6. Crop Protection

i. Plant Pathology’

Importance of plant diseases, scope and objectives ofPlant Pathology. Terms and concepts in Plant Pathology.  Pathogenesis.  Factors affecting  disease development,  disease triangle and  tetrahedron, classification  of plant diseases.  Important plant pathogenic organisms like fungi,  bacteria, fastidious vascular bacteria,  phytoplasmas.  Spiroplasma.  viruses,  viroids,  algae,  protozoa, phanerogamic parasites and  nematodes with  examples of diseases caused  by  them.  Disorders due to abiotic causes. Growth and reproduction of plant pathogens. Liberation / dispersal and survival of plant pathogens.  Types of parasitism and  variability  in  plant pathogens.  Pathogenesis.  Role of enzymes,  toxins and  growth  regulators in  disease development.  Defense mechanism in  plants. Epidemiology: Factors affecting  disease development.  Principles and  methods of plant disease management,  Integrated  Disease Management I DM).  Nature,  chemical combination, classification, mode of action and formulations of fungicides & antibiotics.

Diseases  of Field  Crops, Horticultural Crops & their Integrated Disease Management (with major emphasis on diseases prevalent under Agro-climatic condition of Tripura).

ii. Agricultural Entomology

Major points related  to  dominance of Insccta in  Anima! kingdom.  Classification  of phylum Arthropoda up  to  classes.  Relationship  of class Insccta with  other classes of Arthropoda. Morphology  and  and  Functions of Various Parts of Insect Body, Metamorphosis and diapause in insects.  Types of larvae and  pupae.  Structure and  functions of digestive,  circulatory,  excretory, respiratory,  nervous,  secretary  (Endocrine) and  reproductive system,  in  insects.  Types of reproduction in insects. Major sensory organs like simple and compound eyes, chemorcccptor.

Insect Ecology: Introduction, Environment and its components. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Insects.

Classification  of  class  Insecta  up  to  Orders,  basic  groups  of  present-day  insects  with  special emphasis to orders and families of Agricultural importance.

Categories  of  pests.  Concept  and  Components  of  IPM,  practices,  scope  and  limitations  of  IPM. Survey surveillance and forecasting of insect pests and diseases. Economic Injury Level (EIL),

Economic Threshold  Level (ETL).  Classification,  toxicity  and  formulation  of insecticides. Agrochemicals & Bio-pesticides under Crop  Protection.  Recent methods of pest control, 

repellents,    antifeedants,    hormones,    attractants,    gamma    radiation.    Insecticides    Act    1968. Application techniques of spray fluids. Symptoms of poisoning, first aid and antidotes.

Important Pests of different Field Crops, Horticultural Crops, Stored Grains and their Management (with major emphasis on pests prevalent under Agro-climatic condition of Tripura).

7.   Social Science

i. Principle of Farm Business Management

ii. Agricultural Extension Education: Principles and Methods

iii. Agricultural Marketing & Market Intelligence

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